Sunday, August 25, 2013

Thank You, Pipit!

Pipit, Birdcouple's main birding transportation, is so named because after we first bought her, we saw American Pipits on our first two birding trips with her. She passed a big milestone earlier this month - 100k miles in less than 4 years.

Pipit is a 2010 Ford Escape hybrid, gets 35+ miles to the gallon, and is the perfect birding and adventure car. When we are creeping along a country road, looking or listening at birds, her gas engine kicks off and the electric battery kicks in - she goes quiet, and the birds hardly know we are there.

She's a beaut:

She has taken us on hiking and related adventures from Maine to far southwest Virginia, ferried Mitch and Adam to and from colleges, and has gotten us safely to find birds in every county in Maryland, and beyond. All without complaint or major problem.

Here's a snap from one of Warren's recent outings, a Swallow-Tailed Kite, his 355th species seen in Maryland. Thanks, Pipit!

Monday, August 19, 2013

NY Times on eBird: Crowdsourcing, for the Birds

August 19, 2013

HELENA, Mont. — On a warm morning not long ago on the shore of a small prairie lake outside this state capital, Bob Martinka trained his spotting scope on a towering cottonwood tree heavy with blue heron nests. He counted a dozen of the tall, graceful birds and got out his smartphone, not to make a call but to type the number of birds and the species into an app that sent the information to researchers in New York. 

Mr. Martinka, a retired state wildlife biologist and an avid bird-watcher, is part of the global ornithological network eBird. Several times a week he heads into the mountains to scan lakes, grasslands, even the local dump, and then reports his sightings to the Cornell Lab of Ornithology, a nonprofit organization based at Cornell University. 

 “I see rare gulls at the dump quite frequently,” Mr. Martinka said, scanning a giant mound of bird-covered trash. 

Tens of thousands of birders are now what the lab calls “biological sensors,” turning their sightings into digital data by reporting where, when and how many of which species they see. Mr. Martinka’s sighting of a dozen herons is a tiny bit of information, but such bits, gathered in the millions, provide scientists with a very big picture: perhaps the first crowdsourced, real-time view of bird populations around the world. 

Birds are notoriously hard to count. While stationary sensors can measure things like carbon dioxide levels and highway traffic, it takes people to note the type and number of birds in an area. Until the advent of eBird, which began collecting daily global data in 2002, so-called one-day counts were the only method. 

While counts like the Audubon Christmas Bird Count and the Breeding Bird Survey bring a lot of people together on one day to make bird observations across the country, and are scientifically valuable, they are different because they don’t provide year-round data.

And eBird’s daily view of bird movements has yielded a vast increase in data — and a revelation for scientists. The most informative product is what scientists call a heat map: a striking image of the bird sightings represented in various shades of orange according to their density, moving through space and time across black maps. Now, more than 300 species have a heat map of their own. 

“As soon as the heat maps began to come out, everybody recognized this is a game changer in how we look at animal populations and their movement,” said John W. Fitzpatrick, director of the Cornell Lab. “Really captivating imagery teaches us more effectively.” 

It was long believed, for example, that the United States had just one population of orchard orioles. Heat maps showed that the sightings were separated by a gap, meaning there are not one but two genetically distinct populations. 

Moreover, the network offers a powerful way to capture data that was lost in the old days. “People for generations have been accumulating an enormous amount of information about where birds are and have been,” Dr. Fitzpatrick said. “Then it got burned when they died.” 

No longer: eBird has compiled 141 million reports, or bits, and the number is increasing by 40 percent a year. In May, eBird gathered a record 5.6 million new observations from 169 countries. (Mr. Martinka’s sighting of 12 herons at once, for example, is considered one species observation, or bit.) 

The system also offers incentives for birders to stay involved, with apps that enable them to keep their life lists (records of the species they have seen), compare their sightings with those of friends (and rivals), and know where to look for birds they haven’t seen before. 

“When you get off the plane and turn your phone on,” Dr. Fitzpatrick said, “you can find out what has been seen near you over the last seven days and ask it to filter out the birds you haven’t seen yet, so with a quick look you can add to your life list.” 

The system is not without problems. Citizen scientists may not be as precise in reporting data as experienced researchers are, like the ones in the Breeding Bird Survey. Cornell has tried to solve that problem by hiring top birders to travel around the world to train people like Mr. Martinka in methodology. And 500 volunteer experts read the submissions for accuracy, rejecting about 2 percent. Rare-bird sightings get special scrutiny. 

The engine that makes eBird data usable is machine learning, or artificial intelligence — a combination of software and hardware that sorts through disparities, gaps and flaws in data collection, improving as it goes along. 

“Machine learning says, ‘I know these data are sloppy, but fortunately there’s a lot of it,’ ” Dr. Fitzpatrick said. “It takes chunks of these data and sorts through to find patterns in the noise. These programs are learning as they go, testing and refining and getting better and better.” 

Still, some experts question eBird’s validity. John Sauer, a wildlife biologist with the United States Geological Survey, says that bird-watchers’ reports lack scientific rigor. Rather than randomness, he said, “you get a lot of observations from where people like to go.” And he doubts that Cornell has proved the reliability of its machine learning efforts. 

Still, the information has promise, he said, “and it’s played a powerful role in coordinating birders for recording observations, and encouraging bird-watching.” 

 And the data are being used by a wide array of researchers and conservationists. Cagan H. Sekercioglu, a professor of ornithology at the University of Utah who has used similar bird-watching data in his native Turkey to study the effects of climate change on birds, called eBird “a phenomenal resource” and said that it was “getting young people involved in natural history, which might seem slow and old-fashioned in the age of instant online gratification.” 

Data about bird populations can help scientists understand other changes in the natural world and be a marker for the health of overall biodiversity. “Birds are great indicators because they occur in all environments,” said Steve Kelling, the director of information science at the Cornell bird lab. 

A decline in Eastern meadowlarks in part of New York State, for example, suggests that their habitat is shrinking — bad news for other species that depend on the same habitat. In California, eBird data is being used by some planners to decide where cities and towns should steer development. 

The data is also being combined with radar and weather data by BirdCast, another Cornell bird lab project that forecasts migration patterns with the aim of protecting birds as they move through a gantlet of threats. “We can predict migration events that would be usable for the timing of wind generation facilities to be turned off at night,” Dr. Fitzpatrick said. 

In California, biologists use the migration data to track waterfowl at critical times. When the birds are headed through the Central Valley, for example, they can ask rice farmers to flood their fields to create an improvised wetland habitat before the birds arrive. “The resolution is at such a level of detail they can make estimates of where species occur almost at a field-by-field level,” Mr. Kelling said. 

EBird data has been used in Britain, too, combined with that of a similar program called BirdTrack, which uses radar images, weather models and even data from microphones on top of buildings to record the sounds of migrating birds at night. 

And for bird-watchers, the eBird project has given their pastime a new sense of purpose. “It’s a really neat tool,” Mr. Martinka said. “If you see one bird or a thousand, it’s significant.”

Wednesday, August 14, 2013

Bad Boys of Birding...

Men's Journal currently has on feature on the most irrelevant World Series of Birding team....

My trick is I wake up early, smoke a lot of weed, and start drinking by 10," Rodney Johnson says, lighting an American Spirit and pulling out from the parking lot of a strip-mall sushi restaurant in Scotch Plains, New Jersey. It's minutes before midnight, the official start of the 30th annual World Series of Birding – a 24-hour competition held every May in which upwards of 1,000 international birders race around the Garden State, in teams averaging four people, trying to identify as many bird species as possible – and Johnson, captain of the three-man Diving Dabblers, is explaining how....

Read the article here:

Saturday, August 10, 2013

In the garden...

Birdcouple has done a few low-key birding trips lately, to some our favorite local hangouts like Jug Bay Natural Wetlands Area, Pickering Creek Audubon Center and Swan Creek. It's been a bit slow, but shorebird migration is slowly kicking into gear, to be followed by passerine migration.

And of course another major bird event, the Baltimore RAVENS home opener.

But we digress. We have also had a lot of fun exploring our garden - Lisa's garden, we should say, as Warren only mows the grass - a little more closely than ever, as we build our Lovenest biodiversity list.

Today, Warren found this spider hanging out by the front door. (It is spider season out there!). It's fairly common - a Black-and-Yellow Garden Spider - but we had never noticed one in the garden before.

Meanwhile, Lisa's plantings, in this case Joe Pye Weed, seem to have attracted half the butterflies in Anne Arundel County. Look closely below- there are 10, 12 or more Tiger Swallowtails in the picture.  We only recently learned that the dark one is not a separate species, but the female Swallowtail.

(Sorry for the lame BlackBerry-taken photos).

A weekend with time to discover the garden. Bliss!